The Many Styles Of Jazz Music
The essence of the appeal of Jazz music has expanded and became reinvented from the use of elements found in African drumming, spiritual and hymn music, bluegrass hillbilly music, blues, impressionist, and classical traits to newer sounds. Jazz music became popular from radio and underground clubs that influenced other parts of the world. For instance, Europe’s French Jazz scene created Gypsy Jazz and South America’s Brazilian and Afro-Cuban Jazz sounds. Not only did make it’s mark on the world, but it also found its way back to its roots through urban contemporary gospel music of percussion as well as brass instruments.
Today the contemporary gospel music uses guitars, keyboard, piano, drums and brass instruments for their sound. One can usually tell during the ballads how Jazz chord harmonies are used in the keyboard and piano. The harmony in Barbershop music like Jazz came from the African American Black gospel church community which use close four part harmony without accompaniment. This particular style of music without accompaniment is known as A capella. The Mills Brothers were popular Jazz musicians who learned how this harmonization in the barbershop owned by their father.
In many Jazz groups such as Manhattan Transfer, New York Voices, Acoustix, Bara Vox, Beach Front, BR6 and more the harmonies are similar to that of barbershop. These harmonies are from the chromatic chordal harmony found in Jazz Music. The group Take 6 has expanded the traditional four part harmonies to six tones. Jazz Music did not stop there , but grew into an array of different styles that produce different aesthetic appeal.
The aesthetic appeal can be found in how each part of the music makes one feel once heard. All the different elements from the lyrical content to the kaleidoscope of colorful harmony to the depth of the mood provides its own ambiance of sound. To give examples:
On the extent to which Jazz has expanded are listed below as new expressions to the music.
Vocalese – From 1952 to 1962 Eddie Jefferson and Jon Hendricks made their mark by using their vocals as a substitute for the music instrument in the exact melody. Meaning, the voice imitated the exact solo of a saxophonist solo. It was not wide accepted until the musicians above made it popular.
Cool Jazz- From the latter 1940’s and 1950’s a softer more gentle style of Jazz of both bop and swing with arranged harmonies that are present in Jazz ballads today.
Hard Bop-From the middle of 1950’s the church’s spiritual and gospel roots of African style returned to the Jazz music which assisted in the making of Rhythm and Blues. One example of this music is Davis’ work titled “Walkin”.
Mainstream- From the 1950’s era, Jazz improvisation changed from single line melodic ornamentation to chordal which appeared again as a loose form of Jazz music in the later part of the 1970’s and 1980’s. This style was influenced by the cool, classical, and hard bop Jazz styles.